A simple and clear explanation of recent positive and negative studies: hydroxychloroquine has strong evidence of efficacy, by Dr John Campbell


Dr. John Campbell

Belgium, not Dutch. Low-dose Hydroxychloroquine Therapy and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Nationwide Observational Study of 8075 Participants (International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 24 August) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science…


Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been largely used and investigated as therapy of COVID-19 , at total dose usually ranging from 2400 mg to 9600 mg.

In Belgium, off-label use of low-dose HCQ (2400 mg in total over five days) was recommended for hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

“low-dose” regimen of HCQ sulphate in monotherapy

400mg twice on day 1

200mg twice a day from day 2 to 5

i.e. a total dose of 2400 mg


Multi-centric design

Vast majority of Belgian hospitals

Retrospective analysis

In-hospital mortality in Belgium

40 day follow up

No difference in the baseline characteristics


HCQ alone and supportive care

Supportive care only

Adjusted for demographic and clinical features


8075 patients with complete discharge data

HCQ group, n = 4,542

Deaths, 804, (17.7%)

no-HCQ group, n = 3,533

Deaths, 957 (27.1%)

Multivariable analysis

Mortality was lower in the HCQ group compared to the no-HCQ group

Hazard ratio = 0.684

Estimated direct-adjusted mortality at 40 days

19.1% with HCQ alone

26.5% with supportive care only

Mortality in the HCQ group was reduced

Both in patients diagnosed in less than 5 days and more than 5 days


Compared to supportive care only, low-dose HCQ monotherapy was independently associated with lower mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 diagnosed and treated early or later after symptom onset.

Other positive studies


Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City


Hydroxychloroquine use was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality

Treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and combination in patients hospitalized with COVID-19


treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with azithromycin was associated with reduction in COVID-19 associated mortality

Studies that where unsuccessful at achieving efficacy.

Recovery Trial

Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: Preliminary results from a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial. 15 July 2020



Hydroxychloroquine group, n = 1,561

Usual care group, n = 3,155

Patients allocated to hydroxychloroquine sulfate (200mg) received a loading dose of 4 tablets (800 mg) at zero and 6 hours, followed by 2 tablets (400 mg) starting at 12 hours after the initial dose and then every 12 hours for the next 9 days

9,200 mg over 10 days


In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine was not associated with reductions in 28-day mortality

Was associated with an increased length of hospital stay and increased risk of progressing to invasive mechanical ventilation or death



9600 mg over 10 days

Provided no benefit in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19 (NEJM23 July)




55 hospitals, Brazil

Randomized Open label


Controlled Patients 667 patients, 504 confirmed Covid-19

Receiving no supplemental oxygen Or a maximum of 4 liters per minute


Standard care n = 229

Standard care plus hydroxychloroquine (400 mg twice daily) n = 221

Standard care plus hydroxychloroquine (400 mg twice daily) plus azithromycin (500 mg once daily for 7 days) n = 277


No difference in need for ventilation, deaths, thromboembolic complications, AKI Clinical status at 15 days As compared with standard care = 1 Hydroxychloroquine alone, odds ratio, 1.21 Hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, odds ratio, 0.99 HCQ Group Prolongation of the corrected QT interval and Elevation of liver-enzyme levels


Among patients hospitalized with mild-to-moderate Covid-19, the use of hydroxychloroquine, alone or with azithromycin, did not improve clinical status at 15 days as compared with standard care.

If you would like to donate to John’s educational projects, please use the following link, thank you, https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr…


Belgium Study: Low-dose Hydroxychloroquine Therapy and Mortality (Lowered) in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Nationwide Observational Study of 8075 Participants

Belgium Study 8,075 patients: Low HCQ doses resulted in lower mortality in Covid patients

Belgium revisits: Hydrochloroquine has indeed been shown to decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, both ex vivo and in a pulmonary model.

100 doctors go to Brasilia to order hydroxychloroquine from popular pharmacies

What Is Gilead’s Role In The War On Hydroxychloroquine?

New Jersey Study of 1,274: Hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of outpatients with mildly symptomatic COVID-19; A multi-center observational study where hydroxychloroquine exposure was associated with a decreased rate of subsequent hospitalization

Italy Study 3,451 patients: Use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalised COVID-19 patients is associated with reduced mortality: Findings from the observational multicentre Italian CORIST study

Yale prof: “The evidence in favor of hydroxychloroquine benefit in high-risk patients treated early as outpatients is stronger than anything else I’ve ever studied.”

Australian MP Craig Kelly delivers powerful parliamentary speech on hydroxychloroquine

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